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compendium of scientific papers

This document is an anthology which demonstrates the overwhelming consensus among natural resource agencies and within the scientific community that roadless areas are of extremely high ecological value. The literature points clearly to at least two conclusions important for management:

  • roadless areas are critical because they are the only undisturbed habitats on an almost universally disturbed landscape. As such, they are de facto refuges for numerous aquatic, riparian-dependent and terrestrial species; and

  • the reasons that these areas are roadless (high elevation, steepness and erodibility) are precisely the same reasons that they should be protected from roading and other management impacts: in these areas the risks to stream habitats from disturbance are extremely high.

We believe that although roadless areas protection alone will not secure western aquatic systems, it would be a major step forward.

I. What have the natural resource agencies said about the importance of roadless areas to aquatic systems?

National Marine Fisheries Service

  • Roadless areas contain much of the remaining high-quality habitat for anadromous fish. They can be considered havens for weak stocks and may facilitate the future re-colonization of restored habitats." (National Marine Fisheries Service 1995a)

  • Road construction has been a primary cause of salmonid habitat decline." (National Marine Fisheries Service 1995a)

  • "NMFS agrees with the Eastside Forests Scientific Society Panel's finding that roadless areas of 1000 acres or larger are significant. These areas should be carefully evaluated for their importance in meeting ecological goals and RMOs [Riparian Management Objectives] in Priority Watersheds . . ." NMFS further recognized in the same biological opinion that many roadless areas are currently unprotected and that information is lacking to support a comprehensive understanding of the functions and values of roadless areas. On this basis, in watersheds containing imperiled salmon it called on the Forest Service to: (1) carefully evaluate the functions and values of roadless areas prior to proposing new actions in these areas, such that, collectively, these action pose no more than a "de minimis risk of degrading these functions and values" and; (2) evaluate the impacts of proposed actions on roadless areas, including mapping of areas 1000 acres or greater in the Snake River basin, geographical and geomorphic descriptions, all proposed actions two years into the future and an analysis of impacts. (NMFS, 1995b).

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  • "These [unroaded] areas [over 1000 acres] may be extremely important to Bulltrout and other Inland Fishes. . . .Failure to protect these areas until we have [some insight into what the effects of entry might be] will hasten the listing of inland fishes." (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996).

    Joint Recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency, NMFS and FWS

    In November of 1995, all three regulatory agencies submitted a draft "Aquatic Conservation Strategy" for 75 million acres of federal land in the Interior Columbia Basin which stated that:

  • "Strongholds will need to be protected for the maintenance and protection of species that have been reduced in other areas. Aquatic strongholds most often occur in unroaded areas which require that these areas remain unroaded since roads and associated management are often a primary source of sedimentation and damage to aquatic habitat." (USFWS, NMFS and EPA, "Advance Draft Aquatic Conservation Strategy," submitted to the ICBEMP November 8, 1995, page 5) (emphasis added).

  • "Recent scientific literature emphasizes the importance of unroaded areas greater than 1,000 acres as strongholds for the production of fish and other aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as sources of high quality water. (Henjum et al. 1994; Rhodes et. al. 1994). For successful ¤7 ESA consultation, the ICBEMP [Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project] should allocate all unroaded areas greater than 1,000 acres as Strongholds for the production of clean water, aquatic and riparian-dependent species. Many unroaded areas are isolated, relatively small, and most are not protected from road construction and subsequent timber harvest, even in steep areas. Thus, immediate protection through allocation of the unroaded areas to the production of clean water, aquatic and riparian-dependent resources is necessary to prevent degradation of this high quality habitat and should not be postponed [until after further analysis]. (Id. at 11).

  • "If, after a comprehensive analysis to determine which unroaded areas are contributing to clean water, fish, aquatic and riparian dependent resources, it is determined that some unroaded areas are not contributing, then the Stronghold allocation should be removed from those unroaded areas. Until then, all unroaded areas greater than 1,000 acres should be allocated as Strongholds dedicated to the production of fish, aquatic resources and clean water." (Id)

    The Regional Directors of the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Fish and Wildlife Services also stated in a letter to the Executive Steering Committee of ICBEMP, October 26, 1995 that:

  • "[a] review of the designated land-use allocation at the Columbia Basin level is essential to focus management on aquatic and riparian-dependent species conservation to meet the legal obligations under the Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), National Forest Management Act, and Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) . . . . We strongly support preservation of existing roadless areas greater than 1000 acres within FS/BLM lands . . . for aquatic resource conservation." (Letter to the Executive Steering Committee of ICBEMP, October 26, 1995).

    II. What have interagency, interdisciplinary teams of government scientists such as FEMAT and the ICBEMP's Science Integration Team said about roadless areas?

  • "Roadless areas are often characterized by significant amounts of unstable land. Most of these unstable areas are considered inoperable because timber harvest and road construction could cause irretrievable losses of soil productivity and other watershed values. Road networks are the most important sources of accelerated delivery of sediment to fish-bearing streams. Road-related landslides, surface erosion, and stream channel diversions often deliver large quantities of sediment to streams, both catastrophically during large streams and chronically during smaller runoff events. Road surfaces and ditches can also serve as extensions of the stream network, thereby increasing flood peaks and efficiently delivering road-derived sediments to streams." (Federal Ecosystem Management Assessment Team 1993).

  • "Roads may have unavoidable effects on streams, no matter how well they are located, designed or maintained. Roads modify natural hillslope drainage networks and accelerate erosion processes. These changes can alter physical processes in streams, leading to changes in streamflow regimes, sediment transport and storage, channel bank and bed configurations, substrate composition, and stability of slopes adjacent to streams. These changes have significant biological consequences that affect virtually all components of stream ecosystems. (Federal Ecosystem Management Assessment Team 1993).

  • "The sediment contribution to streams from roads is often much greater than that from all other land management activities combined, including log skidding and yarding (Gibbons and Sato 1973)." (Federal Ecosystem Management Assessment Team 1993).

  • "Management activities in roadless areas will increase the risk of aquatic and riparian habitat damage, impair the capacity of Key Watersheds to function as intended and limit the potential to achieve the objectives of Aquatic Conservation Strategy. Of these management activities, roads represent the greatest risk to riparian and aquatic systems; much greater than timber harvest alone. To protect the best habitats in the identified Key Watersheds, no new roads should be constructed in roadless areas within Key Watersheds. We recommend that there be a reduction in existing road mileage within Key Watersheds." (Federal Ecosystem Management Assessment Team 1993).

  • "The Basin's abundant unroaded areas are an irreplaceable national resource; about 40 percent of the Federal lands in the Basin provide primitive or semi-primitive recreation opportunities" (Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings 1996).

  • "In the lower 48 states, 70 percent of the unroaded areas of 200,000 acres or greater lie in the [Interior Columbia] Basin; 56 percent of trail use in the Basin takes place in primitive/sensitive settings." (Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings 1996).

  • "High road densities and their locations within watersheds are typically correlated with areas of higher watershed sensitivity to erosion and sediment transport streams. Road density also is correlated with the distribution and spread of exotic annual grasses, noxious weeds, and other exotic plants. Furthermore, high road densities are correlated with areas that have few large snags and few large trees that are resistant to both fire and infestation of insects and disease." (Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings 1996).

  • "Increasing road density is correlated with declining aquatic habitat conditions and aquatic integrity and is associated with declines in the status of four non-anadromous salmonid species." (Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings 1996).

  • "An intensive review of the literature concludes that increases in sedimentation are unavoidable even using the most cautious roading methods. Roads combined with wildfires accentuate the risk from sedimentation. The amount of sedimentation of hydrologic alteration from roads that streams can tolerate before there is a negative response is not well known. It is not fully known whether building roads to reduce fire risk causes greater risk to aquatic systems than realizing the potential risk of fire." (Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings 1996).

    IV. What have independent scientists said?

    There is overwhelming scientific support for the protection of roadless areas due to the biological uniqueness of these areas and because of the extensive ecological damage caused by roads and road building. In addition, the roadless areas provide the anchor for long-term restoration and recovery of the region's fish and wildlife species. The following quotations from several scientific papers and reports provide support for the protection of roadless areas. Full citations for these excerpts may be found at the end of this document.

    Re: The Biological Value of Roadless Areas

  • "Undisturbed areas within watersheds or the Snake River Basin as a whole not only provide habitat refugia for salmon, they also support continuance of natural linkages between terrestrial and aquatic systems." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Existing roadless and wilderness areas provide the only high-quality habitats and islands of natural functioning systems left in the entire Snake River Basin. The extent of these areas is limited." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994)

  • "Intact and pristine watersheds (e.g., roadless and wilderness areas) serve to function as critical habitats and biotic refuge areas for fish and wildlife of adjoining ecosystems." (Wissmar et al. 1994).

  • "Designated wilderness and areas predicted to be unroaded are important anchors for strongholds throughout the Basin. Strongholds on Forest Service and BLM lands are 58 percent predicted unroaded. Watersheds with strongholds in the Central Idaho Mountains and the Snake Headwaters reflect the large amounts of wilderness and National Park System lands, with the larger amounts of predicted unroaded spaces in the basin. Many predicted unroaded areas in the Lower Clark Fork and Northern Glaciated Mountains are adjacent to isolated and fragmented strongholds. (Lee et al. 1997, pre-publication copy).

  • "The small fragments of roadless areas in the watershed serve as the anchor points for restoring riparian vegetation, water quality, and fish habitat." (Anderson et al. 1993).

  • "Scientific evaluations (Anderson et al. 1993; USFS, 1993b; USFS et al. 1993; Henjum et al. 1994) have consistently noted that roadless, unlogged tracts form the cornerstones of habitat recovery efforts. . . . . Because roads crisscross so many forested areas on the Eastside, existing roadless regions have enormous ecological value. . . . . Unfortunately, few of these remaining areas are protected; in the Blue Mountains of Eastern Oregon and Washington, for example, less than 8% of 722,000 acres of forested, roadless area is administratively protected. Although roads were intended as innocuous corridors to ease the movement of humans and commodities across the landscape, they harm the water, soils, plants, and animals in those landscapes." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Given available data and known linkages among land use effects and habitat conditions, it can be reasonably concluded that the best water quality and habitat conditions needed by salmon exist in roadless/wilderness areas or where continuing disturbance of roadless areas has not occurred. For instance, although the South Fork Salmon River has not fully recovered, surface fine sediment levels (about 10-15% (Idaho Dept. of Health and Welfare, 1991)) in the South Fork Salmon River are lower than other managed watersheds in the Idaho batholith (See and compare Figures 5 and 9). In fact, levels of surface fine sediment in Johnson Creek and Bear Valley streams exceed the amount of surface fine sediment existing in the South Fork Salmon River at its worst during the 1960s. It is estimated that average surface fine sediment in the South Fork Salmon River peaked at about 47% (Platts et al. 1989). Johnson Creek currently has about 63% surface fine sediment (NMFS, 1993), and Bear Valley Creek has about 56% surface fine sediment (Boise National Forest, 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Data we have collected suggest that much of the best fish habitat on the Clearwater National Forest is in unroaded areas, where levels of fine streambed sediment are generally lower than in managed landscapes." (see below) (Huntington 1994).

  • "Swan River [Montana] tributaries whose watersheds are dominated by roadless lands are disproportionately important for the persistence and recovery of westslope cutthroat trout, bull trout, and other native species. Median road density in the 15 watersheds identified as critical based on aquatic biodiversity criteria is about half the median road density of the remaining watersheds in the basin. Both habitat deterioration and the introductions of nonnative fishes that together threaten native aquatic plants and animals are associated with roads and the range of human activities that roads encourage or allow." (Frissell et al. 1995).

  • "Existing roadless regions offer important sanctuary. Because many forested areas in eastern Oregon and Washington are heavily dissected by roads, the ecological value of existing roadless regions is especially high." (Henjum et al. 1993).

  • "Available information indicates that much of the Snake River Basin has been degraded. Existing roadless and wilderness areas provide the only high-quality habitats and islands of natural functioning systems left in the Snake River Basin. The extent of these areas is limited." (Rhodes, McCullough, and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Few completely roadless, large watersheds exist in the Pacific Northwest, but those that remain relatively undisturbed play critical roles in sustaining sensitive native species and important ecosystem processes (Oregon Chapter of the American Fisheries Society 1989; Sedell et al. 1990; Williams 1991; Moyle and Sato)" (Frissell 1993).

  • "Roadless regions constitute the least-human-disturbed forest and stream systems, the last reservoirs of ecological diversity, and the primary benchmarks for restoring ecological health and integrity." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Environmental conditions in roadless/wilderness areas also make their protection important. Many roadless/wilderness areas are in steep, erosive terrain with relatively high levels of precipitation and with snowmelt-dominated hydrology (The Wilderness Society, 1993; Henjum et al. 1994), rendering remaining roadless areas more prone to management-induced increases in peakflow (MacDonald and Ritland, 1989) and fine sediment in salmon habitat (Everest et al. 1987)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Structurally diverse streams in watersheds unmodified by human activity [roadless areas] typically have a great deal of buffering capacity to sustain fish populations." (Cross and Everest 1995).

  • "Undisturbed areas (provided they are minimally influenced by alterations to upstream areas or neighboring watersheds) provide zones where the natural terrestrial processes can operate, and through linkages with the stream system produce habitat conditions typical of those in which the salmon evolved." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

    Re: Road Damage to Ecosystems and Individual Species

  • "Middle Fork Salmon River tributaries adjacent to Bear Valley Creek that are within wilderness/roadless areas, have much less fine sediment and higher salmon survival and densities than Bear Valley Creek. Pool losses have been significant over a 50-year period in all managed basins that have been resurveyed in the Snake River Basin, except the Tucannon, which has a considerable portion of the watershed in a wilderness/roadless condition. Over the same 50-year period, pool loss was insignificant in streams with watersheds in a wilderness/roadless condition (McIntosh, 1992)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Studies in the Idaho batholith indicate that streams in pristine basins with natural sediment loads have significantly lower fine sediment and cobble embeddedness than in managed basins (Burns, 1984; Boise National Forest, 1993; Overton et al. 1993). The same pattern has also been observed in streams in the Blue Mountains of Oregon (J. Rhodes, unpublished field notes, 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "The cessation of improvement in the South Fork Salmon River appears to be due to continuing levels of elevated sediment delivery from the remaining road system and other sources (Platts et al. 1989).

  • "A moratorium on logging-related disturbance has been effective in decreasing fine sediment levels in the South Fork Salmon River, but over the last several years, fine sediment conditions have ceased to improve." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "High road densities harm many forms of wildlife. The ecological integrity of existing LS/OG patches and other roadless regions can only be maintained if these sites are not disturbed by the construction of roads. Roadless regions serve as critical refuges for terrestrial wildlife sensitive to human disturbance. Roadless densities in LS/OG patches that already have roads should be reduced to less than 1 mi/mi2. Achieving this goal is vital to rehabilitation of eastside [Oregon and Washington] fisheries and terrestrial resources." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "The catastrophic degradation of the South Fork Salmon River was caused primarily by mass failures from logging roads and logged areas; . . . . [I]t is estimated that less than 15% of the watershed had been disturbed by logging and roads at the time of the mass failure events (D. Burns, Payette National Forest Fish Bio., pers. comm., 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994.)

  • "Roads fragment habitat; alter the hydrological properties of watersheds; discharge excessive sediment to streams; increase human access and thus disturbance to forest animals; and influence the dispersal of plans and animals, especially exotic species, across the landscape. Roads make fish and wildlife more vulnerable to harvest; they open access to deep forest habitats, for pests and predators. Large predatory mammals such as grizzly bears and wolves do not frequent areas crisscrossed by roads; elk, too are sensitive to road density." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Based on available data, fine sediment levels range from 20 to 60% in many streams outside of wilderness and roadless areas (Platts et al. 1989; Scully and Petrosky, 1991; Rich et al., 1992; Clearwater National Forest, 1991a and b; Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, 1992; Purser and Rhodes, in process; Boise National Forest, 1993; Clearwater National Forest, 1993). Therefore, it is likely that salmon survival to emergence in many watersheds outside of wilderness/roadless areas has been significantly reduced and may average only 10-15% (USFS, 1983; Scully and Petrosky, 1991; Boise National Forest, 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

    Re: Current Federal Management Plans' Failure to Protect the Ecosystem Values of Roadless Areas

  • "Existing conservation reserves in Oregon--including wilderness areas, research natural areas, national parks, and wildlife refuges--do not represent or protect the full diversity of eastside aquatic ecosystems and species assemblages. Most reserves are concentrated in high-elevation mountainous terrain." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Implementation of present federal management plans for eastside forests means further degradation of habitat and water quality. These plans call for additional road mileage; widespread, grazing in riparian systems; and logging in riparian zones, with consequent losses of woody debris." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "To conserve complete arrays of species and associated ecological interactions, management schemes must consider the density of roads. Road densities greater than 1mi/mi2 are considered detrimental to wolf and elk populations (Jensen et al. 1986). Wolf pup survival rates indicate that wolves may tolerate road densities higher than 1 mi/mi2 if extensive roadless regions exist adjacent to wolf territories (Mech 1989). But road densities within much of eastside forests exceed 2.5 mi/mi2 (e.g., Colville and Winema National Forests), and remaining roadless areas are quickly disappearing. Protection of terrestrial vertebrates, as well as fisheries resources, requires a moratorium on road building plus efforts to remove existing roads." (Henjum et al. 1994).

    Re: Serious and Irreversible Harm Caused by Failure to Protect our Last Remaining Roadless Areas

  • "Human entry into critical watersheds for road building and logging may place at risk the few remaining refugia available to sustain diversity in eastside stocks and assemblages." (Henjum et al. 1994). "We recommend limiting the magnitude of land disturbance spatially via riparian and roadless reserves, and, in magnitude, via other screening standards, such as sediment delivery." (Anderson et al. 1993).

  • "Most remaining roadless areas within the Snake River Basin are in areas of higher elevation, higher topographic relief, higher precipitation, colder climates, more alpine vegetation, higher gradient streams, less stable soils, hydrology more dominated by snowmelt, and with a higher propensity for erosion than the many degraded systems that currently host the listed species." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "[I]n the absence of riparian reserves, it is unlikely that salmon habitat can be protected and restored over time, except in roadless and wilderness areas. Many unprotected ADAs [Aquatic Diversity Areas] contain significant patches of LS/OF or roadless regions and are vulnerable to future logging and road building." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Given existing habitat degradation and uncertainties, it is prudent to require that most of the degraded habitat be improved prior to taking risks with the scarce areas having high quality habitat. We recommend that roadless tracts greater than 1000 acres should not entered, at least, until monitoring documents that habitat conditions in >>90% of managed watersheds either meet habitat standards or have exhibited statistically significant improvement over at least five years." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "To the extent that additional logging, road building, and grazing in relatively unaltered watersheds delay downstream recovery or degrade new expanses of habitat, continuing incremental losses of aquatic populations can be expected." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "Smaller roadless tracts may also have important ecological value. We recommend that smaller roadless tracts should not be disturbed unless it can be shown through peer-reviewed analysis that the disturbance will not affect habitat conditions, impede habitat recovery, or foreclose options for habitat recovery." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Do not construct new roads or log within existing (1) roadless regions larger than 1000 acres or (2) roadless regions smaller than 1000 acres that are biologically significant." (Henjum et al. 1994).

  • "The consequences of entry into undisturbed systems are probably lowly reversible. Although accelerated surface erosion may only persist for 6-10 years, hydrologic alteration may persist for more than 20 years (Harr and Coffin, 1990). Accelerated erosion from roads, as well as other effects, persist for as long as the roads exist, and then some. Even after obliteration, roads continue to erode at levels far in excess of natural for several years (Potyondy et al. 1991). Functions provided by large downed wood, such as terrestrial sediment storage, require more than 100 years after trees have been removed for recruitment to be re-established. The prospects for recovery of channel morphology and sediment cycling are extremely poor for steep headwater streams in non-cohesive soils that have been degraded, even if the cause of degradation is arrested (Rosgen, 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994)

  • "Roadless areas and areas with high water quality and/or high quality habitat should not be entered for logging until an improving trend has been achieved in degraded habitat conditions set as standards. We continue to recommend that these areas be protected and not put at risk because these areas from the cornerstones of habitat recovery." (Technical Working Group 1994).

  • "Once degradation has occurred and roadless areas have been mined, roaded, and logged, there is limited potential for recovery. Available trend data from the Clearwater National Forest indicate that there has been little or no recovery in streams with high levels of fine sediment as more roadless areas are logged and entered, even with continuing and substantial in-channel efforts to remove fine sediment from the streams." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "It may not be possible to enter roadless systems without compromising their natural function and/or without degrading habitat conditions. Roadless, unlogged tracts form the cornerstones of habitat recovery efforts. Continued diminishment of areas functioning somewhat naturally increases the risk of failing to improve habitat conditions at scales ranging from the reach to the region. Despite existing data, many have speculated that roadless areas can be entered without degrading habitat conditions via careful planning, avoidance of high risk areas such as riparian areas to the extent considered feasible, and implementation of "Best Management Practices" (BMPs). However, BMP effectiveness remains a matter of speculation. Most studies of the effects of BMPs have been too short in duration to capture lagged effects or provide an indication of long-term effects. Little is known about the cumulative effectiveness of BMPs in the face of significant landscape alteration. While many assessments of BMPs have focused on estimating the short-term reduction in accelerated pollutant loading, most studies have not examined whether aquatic habitat is fully protected over the long term (USEPA, 1993). There has been extremely limited assessment of the cumulative effectiveness of BMPs. It has not been shown under ecologically applicable experimental conditions that it is possible to enter roadless systems without compromising their natural function and/or without degrading habitat conditions, over time." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).

  • "Mining, logging, and road construction in roadless areas have the potential to cause additional habitat loss at the Snake River Basin scale by degrading water quality in areas where it is currently high, further degrading downstream reaches, and forestalling habitat recovery. The prospect of reduction in habitat quality in currently high quality areas combined with the potential for maintenance of poor habitat conditions in degraded areas will seriously jeopardize the prospects for the recovery of salmon populations at the river basin scale, especially because the effects of entry into roadless areas are not immediately reversible and constitute a commitment of resources that is irretrievable. Continued diminishment of areas that maintain natural functions increases the risk of failing to improve habitat conditions at scales ranging from the reach to the region. Logging of roadless areas puts efforts to protect non-degraded and degraded habitats at risk (USFS et al. 1993)." (Rhodes, McCullough and Espinosa 1994).


    Anderson, J.W., R.L. Beschta, P.O. Boehne, D. Bryson, R. Gill, S. Howes, B.A. McIntosh, M.D. Purser, J.J. Rhodes, and J. Zakel. "A Comprehensive Approach to Restoring Habitat Conditions Needed to Protect Threatened Salmon Species in a Severely Degraded River--The Upper Grande Ronde River Anadromous Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration and Monitoring Plan." in U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service. Riparian Management: Common Threads and Shared Interests. General Technical Report RM-226.

    Cross, David and Loren Everest. 1995. "Fish Habitat Attributes of Reference and Managed Watersheds with Special Reference to the Location of Bull Charr (Salvelinus confluentus) Spawning Sites in the Upper Spokane River Ecosystem, Northern Idaho." Fish Habitats Relationships Technical Bulletin, No. 17, February.

    Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team. 1993. Forest Ecosystem Management: An Ecological, Economic and Social Assessment.

    Frissell, C.A. 1993. A New Strategy for Watershed Restoration and Recovery of Pacific Salmon in the Pacific Northwest.

    Frissell, C.A., J.A. Stanford, J. Doskocil, S. Tardiff, and J. Gangemi. In process. "Identifying Critical Areas for Protection and Restoration of Riverine Biodiversity: A Case Study in the Swan River Basin, Montana, U.S.A.

    Henjum, M.G., J.R. Karr, D.L. Bottom, D.A. Perry, J.C. Bednarz, S.G. Wright, S.A.Beckwitt and E. Beckwitt. 1994. Interim Protection for Late-Successional Forests, Fisheries, and Watersheds: National Forests East of the Cascade Crest, Oregon and Washington. A Report to the Congress and President of the United States.

    Huntington, Charles W. 1994. "Fish Habitat and Salmonid Abundance Within Managed and Unroaded Landscapes on the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho." Prepared for Eastside Ecosystem Management Project.

    Lee, Danny C., J.R. Sedell, B.E. Rieman, R.F. Thurow and J.E. Williams. "Broadscale Assessmentof Aquatic Species and Habitats" (Pre-publication copy, 1997).

    Technical Working Group for the Upper Grande Ronde Anadromous Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (UGRRP). Letter to

    La Grande Ranger District, April 15, 1994.

    U.S. Department of Agriculture and U. S. Department of Interior, Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon. General Technical report (PNW-GTR-385, November 1996).

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Fish and Wildlife Service, letter to the Executive Steering Committe of ICBEMP, October 26, 1995.

    U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Briefing Paper from Fish and Wildlife Service Staff to Bill Shake, Regional Fish Program Manager, March 1, 1996, on file at Pacific Rivers Council, Portland, Oregon.

    Wissmar, R.C., J.E. Smith, B.A. McIntosh, H.W. Li, G.H. Reeves, and J.R. Sedell. "A History of Resource Use and Disturbance in Riverine Basins of Eastern Oregon and Washington (Early 1800s-1990s)." 1994. Northwest Science 68 (Special Issue).

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